A Comparative Assessment Study of Known Small-Molecule Keap1-Nrf2 Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors: Chemical Synthesis, Binding Properties, and Cellular Activity
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Inhibiting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor protein Keap1 has emerged as a promising strategy to target oxidative stress in diseases, including CNS disorders. Numerous non-covalent small-molecule Keap1-Nrf2 PPI inhibitors have been reported to date, but many feature suboptimal physicochemical properties for permeating the blood-brain barrier, while others contain problematic structural moieties. Here, we present the first side-by-side assessment of all reported Keap1-Nrf2 PPI inhibitor classes using fluorescence polarization (FP), thermal shift assay (TSA), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-and further evaluate the compounds in an NQO1 induction cell assay and in counter tests for non-specific activities. Surprisingly, half of the compounds were inactive or deviated substantially from reported activities, while we confirm the cross-assay activities for others. Through this study, we have identified the most promising Keap1-Nrf2 inhibitors that can serve as pharmacological probes or starting points for developing CNS active Keap1 inhibitors.
|Journal||Journal of Medicinal Chemistry|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 14 Aug 2019|